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The Constitution of India is one of the most comprehensive and detailed documents in the world. It is the supreme law of India that defines the framework for the functioning of the government, its organs, and its institutions. The Constitution of India was adopted on 26th January 1950 and came into force on the same day. It was drafted by a constituent assembly consisting of representatives from all walks of life.
The Constitution of India is a living document that has undergone several amendments over the years to keep pace with the changing dynamics of the society. It is the longest written constitution in the world with 448 articles and 12 schedules. The Constitution of India is a federal document that divides powers between the central government and the state government. The Constitution of India also lays down the fundamental rights of every citizen of India and the directive principles of State Policy.
The Indian Constitution is based on the Preamble that describes India as a sovereign socialist secular democratic republic. Sovereignty means the supreme power of the people of India, and it is exercised by the government. Socialism is the economic policy that aims at reducing inequality by providing social welfare measures. Secularism means that the state does not have any religion, and it does not promote any religion. Democracy is the political system where the power lies with the people, and they elect their representatives to govern the country. Republic means that the head of the state is elected by the people.
The Indian Constitution begins with the Preamble and is divided into twenty-two parts. The first part of the Constitution deals with the Union and its territories, and the second part deals with citizenship. The third part contains the fundamental rights of every citizen. These rights include the right to equality, right to freedom, right against exploitation, right to freedom of religion, cultural and educational rights, and the right to constitutional remedies.
The Directive Principles of State Policy are mentioned in Part IV of the Constitution. These principles are not legally enforceable but are fundamental to governance. They aim to establish social, economic, and political democracy in India. They include provisions for securing the wellbeing of the people, promoting social justice, and securing a reasonable standard of living for all citizens.
The Constitution also provides for the establishment of the three wings of the government – the legislature, the executive, and the judiciary. The legislature is composed of the Parliament, which is divided into two houses – the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. The executive consists of the President, the Vice-President, the Prime Minister, and the Council of Ministers. The judiciary includes the Supreme Court, the High Courts, and other subordinate courts.
The Constitution of India is a remarkable document that has stood the test of time. The Indian Constitution is a living document that has shaped the destiny of India and its people.
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