N5: GALLANTRY AWARDS OF INDIA

                                                GALLANTRY AWARDS

Post-independence, first three gallantry awards namely Param Vir Chakra, Maha Vir Chakra and Vir Chakra were instituted by the Government of India on 26th January, 1950 which were deemed to have effect from the 15th August, 1947.

Thereafter, other three gallantry awards i.e. Ashoka Chakra Class-I, Ashoka Chakra Class-II and Ashoka Chakra Class-III were instituted by the Government of India on 4th January, 1952, which were deemed to have effect from the 15th August, 1947. These awards were renamed as Ashoka Chakra, Kirti Chakra and Shaurya Chakra respectively in January, 1967.

These gallantry awards are announced twice in a year – first on the occasion of the Republic Day and then on the occasion of the Independence Day. Order of precedence of these awards is the Param Vir Chakra, the Ashoka Chakra, the Mahavir Chakra, the Kirti Chakra, the Vir Chakra and the Shaurya Chakra.

                                 Wartime Gallantry Awards

These awards are given posthumously.

Param Vir Chakra : Most conspicuous bravery or some daring or pre-eminent act of valour or self-sacrifice. Major Somnath Sharma was the first to receive this award.

Maha Vir ChakRa: Acts of bravery in the presence of the enemy on land, at sea or in the air.

Vir Chakra : Acts of bravery in the battle field.

                                        Peace Time Gallantry Awards

These awards are given posthumously.

Ashok Chakra: Most conspicuous bravery or some daring or pre-eminent act of valour or self-sacrifice, otherwise than in the presence of enemy.

Kirti Chakra: Conspicuous gallantry otherwise than in the presence of enemy.

Shaurya Chakra: National bravery generally given for counterinsurgency operations against the enemy during the peace time.

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